NDT Portuguese National Conference 12/2014, At Lisbon, Portugal; 3
Heavy rotor forgings for land-based power generation turbines and generators are inspected ultrasonically. Several decades ago the first inspections were conducted using manual, straight beam, contact transducers with simple, non-descript reporting requirements. The development of ultrasonic inspection capabilities, the change in design engineer requirements, improvements of fracture mechanics calculations, experience with turbine operation, experience with the inspection technology, and probability of detection (PoD) drove the changes that have resulted in the current day inspection requirements: sizing technologies were implemented, detection limits were lowered, angle and pitch/catch (dual crystal) scans were introduced, and most recently automated equipment for the inspection was required. Due to all these changes, model based sizing techniques, like DGS, and modern ultrasonic techniques, like phased array, are being introduced globally. This paper describes the evolution of the ultrasonic inspection requirements over the last decades and presents an outlook for tomorrow.